Vertical radiographic alveolar bone loss in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis: A pilot study

Original Article

Author Details : Sudhanshu Agrawal*, Dipti Singh, Pradeep Kumar Pandey

Volume : 6, Issue : 1, Year : 2021

Article Page : 28-35

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Smoking is considered a potential risk factor for the prevalence and severity of vertical alveolar bone loss. An increased occurrence of vertical bone defects has been observed in cigarette smokers as compared to non-smokers. A study was undertaken to compare vertical interproximal alveolar bony defects in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontal disease. A convenient sample of 60 orthopantomographic records of patients with chronic periodontal disease was selected. 30 patients were smokers and 30 were non-smokers. Bone height measurements were made utilizing extraoral digital panoramic radiographs
obtained from patients’ digital records. The prevalence and severity of vertical bone loss were determined in smoker patients and compared to non-smokers. Any associations with particular groups of teeth and smoking were investigated, as well as any related gender differences. A greater mean millimeter vertical bone loss was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers (1.1120.784 mm vs. 0.9350.887 mm), however this finding was not statistically significant (p=0.418). An increased prevalence of vertical bone loss was found in smokers as compared to non-smokers (10.06% vs. 8.76% respectively). Premolar groups
of teeth and specifically maxillary premolars were significantly more affected (1.4161.234 mm; p=0.030; 1.6191.816 mm; p=0.002 respectively). No significant gender-wise differences of mean millimeter vertical bone loss were found between the different groups of teeth in smokers as compared to non-smokers. The present study supports the role of smoking to be considered as a risk factor for the development of vertical alveolar bone defects. Smokers presented with more severe vertical radiographic alveolar bone loss as compared to non-smokers, including maxillary premolars being significantly more affected. Further studies are suggested including comparisons between various radiographic techniques (FMX, OPG, CBCT) in the detection of alveolar bone loss.

Keywords: Periodontitis, Smoking, Vertical Radiographic Alveolar Bone, Loss, Panoramic Radiograph.

How to cite : Agrawal S , Singh D , Pandey P K, Vertical radiographic alveolar bone loss in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis: A pilot study. IP Int J Periodontol Implantol 2021;6(1):28-35

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and IP Int J Periodontol Implantol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (

Article History

Received : 23-03-2021

Accepted : 31-03-2021

Available online : 16-04-2021

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